Cause Symptoms First Aid
Freezing of tissue, normally due to exposure below 32 F. Numbness in affected area. 
Tingling, blistered, swollen, or tender areas. 
Pale, yellowish, waxy-looking skin.
Warm affected area with direct body heat.
Consult with medical personnel ASAP.
DO NOT thaw frozen area if treatment will be delayed.
DO NOT massage or rub affected area.
DO NOT web area or rub with snow or ice.


Cause Symptoms First Aid
Repeated exposure of bare skin for prolonged periods to temperatures from 20 to 50 F (for those not acclimated to cold weather). Swollen, red skin (or darkening of skin in dark-skinned people).
Tender, hot skin, usually accompanied by itching.
Warm affected area with direct body heat.
DO NOT massage or rub.
DO NOT wet the area or rub with snow or ice.
DO NOT expose affected area to open fire, stove, or any other intense heat source.

IMMERSION FOOT (trench foot)

Cause Symptoms First Aid
Prolonged exposure of feet to wet conditions at temperatures between 32 and 50 F.  Inactivity and damp socks and boots (or tightly laced boots that impair circulation) speed onset and severity. Cold, numb feet may progress to hot with shooting pains. 
Swelling, redness, and bleeding.
Rewarm feet by exposing them to warm air. 
Evacuate victim to a medical facility. 
DO NOT massage, rub, moisten, or expose affected area to extreme heat. 


Cause Symptoms First Aid
Depletion of body fluids. Dizziness.
Replace lost water.  Water should be sipped, not gulped.
Get medical treatment.


Cause Symptoms First Aid
Prolonged cold exposure and body heat loss.  May occur well above freezing, especially when a person is immersed in water. Lack of shivering.
Drowsiness, mental slowness, lack of coordination.  Can progress to unconsciousness, irregular heartbeat, and death.
Strip off clothing and wrap victim in blankets or sleeping bag. 
Get victim to a heated location and medical treatment as soon as possible.

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